Men More Narcissistic, Gender Study
Men are more narcissistic than women, according to science.
After analyzing data from more than 475,000 participants, scientists found that the average man is significantly more narcissistic than the average woman.
The findings held true even after accounting for age and generation.
"Narcissism is associated with various interpersonal dysfunctions, including an inability to maintain healthy long-term relationships, unethical behavior and aggression," lead author Emily Grijalva, PhD, assistant professor of organization and human resources in the University at Buffalo School of Management, said in a news release.
"At the same time, narcissism is shown to boost self-esteem, emotional stability and the tendency to emerge as a leader," she says. "By examining gender differences in narcissism, we may be able to explain gender disparities in these important outcomes," Grijalva added.
Researchers compared gender differences in the three aspects of narcissism: leadership/authority, grandiose/exhibitionism and entitlement
The widest gap was found in entitlement. Researchers explained that this means that men are significantly more likely than women to use others and feel entitled to certain privileges.
Leadership/authority was the second largest difference between men and women.
"Compared with women, men exhibit more assertiveness and desire for power," Grijalva said. "But there was no difference in the exhibitionism aspect, meaning both genders are equally likely to display vanity or self-absorption."
"Individuals tend to observe and learn gender roles from a young age, and may face backlash for deviating from society's expectations," added Grijalva. "In particular, women often receive harsh criticism for being aggressive or authoritative, which creates pressure for women, more so than for men, to suppress displays of narcissistic behavior."
The findings are published in the journal Psychological Bulletin.